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Tips From Dr. Marzano

The New Art and Science of Teaching


The New Art and Science of TeachingThe following tips are designed to assist you in applying the latest research in tangible ways in your classroom, school, or district.



The desired mental states and processes for clear learning goals are that: Students understand the progression of knowledge they are expected to master and where they are along that progression.

The importance of achieving these mental states and processes in students is almost self-evident. If students understand what they are to learn during a given lesson or unit, they are better able to determine how well they are doing and what they need to improve. (page 11)

At its core, assessment is a feedback mechanism for students and teachers.

Assessments should provide students with information about how to advance their understanding of content and teachers with information about how to help students do so. Informal assessments of the whole class provide a barometer of how the whole class is performing regarding the progression of knowledge articulated in a specific proficiency scale. (page 21)

In some circles, direct instruction has a tarnished reputation. It is commonly associated with didactic, lecture-oriented presentations during which students are passive consumers of information.

While it is true that teachers can execute direct instruction—and all other types of instruction—in an unparticipatory manner. In fact, research continually supports the necessary role of direct instruction. Such recognition usually occurs amid loud calls for inquiry-based instruction. (page 29)

When conducting practicing and deepening lessons, it is important to keep in mind the difference between procedural and declarative knowledge.

Procedural knowledge includes skills, strategies, and processes. For example, converting fractions to decimals is a skill because it requires a set of steps usually performed in a specific order. Decoding is a strategy because it involves specific actions although they are not necessarily performed in the same order each time. (page 37)

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