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Teachers cannot become great unless they are given the time, support, and tools to grow in their professional practice. Written for teachers, coaches, and educational leaders, this resource offers a paradigm-shifting approach to teacher development and evaluation. The authors share research-backed steps for improvement, outline the principles for successful observation, and offer extensive protocols designed to help readers fully implement the book’s recommendations.


  • Recognize the failure of past teacher evaluation efforts and its relationship with stagnant teacher development.
  • Understand why the professional growth of teachers is vital to the well-being of the educational system.
  • Discover the beneficial influence of teacher self-reflection and self-rating on elements of effective instruction.
  • Restructure systems of classroom observation and evaluation to improve their effectiveness and encourage teacher development.
  • Learn new, more reliable methods of scoring teachers’ classroom practices and students’ academic growth.

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Part I: Improving Teacher Development
Chapter 1: Understanding Expertise
Chapter 2: Reflecting on Teaching
Chapter 3: Coaching Teaching
Part II: Improving Teacher Evaluation
Chapter 4: The Perils of Observing Teaching
Chapter 5: Principles for Successful Classroom Observations
Chapter 6: The New Paradigm for Teacher Evaluation
Appendix A: Teacher Self-Rating Scales for the Forty-Three Elements of the NASOT Model
Appendix B: Design Area Observational Scales
Appendix C: Tracking Form for Teacher Reflection
Appendix D: Tracking Form for Design Areas, Observational Categories, and Elements


Appendix A

  • Teacher Self-Rating Scales for the Forty-Three Elements of the NASOT Model
  • Element 1: Providing Scales and Rubrics
  • Element 2: Tracking Student Progress
  • Element 3: Celebrating Success
  • Element 4: Using Informal Assessments of the Whole Class
  • Element 5: Using Formal Assessments of Individual Students
  • Element 6: Chunking Content
  • Element 7: Processing Content
  • Element 8: Recording and Representing Content
  • Element 9: Using Structured Practice Sessions
  • Element 10: Examining Similarities and Differences
  • Element 11: Examining Errors in Reasoning
  • Element 12: Engaging Students in Cognitively Complex Tasks
  • Element 13: Providing Resources and Guidance
  • Element 14: Generating and Defending Claims
  • Element 15: Previewing Strategies
  • Element 16: Highlighting Critical Information
  • Element 17: Reviewing Content
  • Element 18: Revising Knowledge
  • Element 19: Reflecting on Learning
  • Element 20: Assigning Purposeful Homework
  • Element 21: Elaborating on Information
  • Element 22: Organizing Students to Interact
  • Element 23: Noticing and Reacting When Students Are Not Engaged
  • Element 24: Increasing Response Rates
  • Element 25: Using Physical Movement
  • Element 26: Maintaining a Lively Pace
  • Element 27: Demonstrating Intensity and Enthusiasm
  • Element 28: Presenting Unusual Information
  • Element 29: Using Friendly Controversy
  • Element 30: Using Academic Games
  • Element 31: Providing Opportunities for Students to Talk About Themselves
  • Element 32: Motivating and Inspiring Students
  • Element 33: Establishing Rules and Procedures
  • Element 34: Organizing the Physical Layout of the Classroom
  • Element 35: Demonstrating Withitness
  • Element 36: Acknowledging Adherence to Rules and Procedures
  • Element 37: Acknowledging Lack of Adherence to Rules and Procedures
  • Element 38: Using Verbal and Nonverbal Behaviors That Indicate Affection for Students
  • Element 39: Understanding Students’ Backgrounds and Interests
  • Element 40: Displaying Objectivity and Control
  • Element 41: Demonstrating Value and Respect for Reluctant Learners
  • Element 42: Asking In-Depth Questions of Reluctant Learners
  • Element 43: Probing Incorrect Answers With Reluctant Learners

Appendix B

  • Design Area Observational Scales
  • Design Area I: Providing and Communicating Clear Learning Goals
  • Design Area II: Using Assessments
  • Design Area III: Conducting Direct Instruction Lessons
  • Design Area IV: Conducting Practicing and Deepening Lessons
  • Design Area V: Conducting Knowledge Application Lessons
  • Design Area VI: Using Strategies That Appear in All Types of Lessons
  • Design Area VII: Using Engagement Strategies
  • Design Area VIII: Implementing Rules and Procedures
  • Design Area IX: Building Relationships
  • Design Area X: Communicating High Expectations



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  • DuFour, R., DuFour, R., Eaker, R., Many, T., & Mattos, M. (2016). Learning by Doing: A Handbook for Professional Learning Communities at Work (3rd ed.). Bloomington, IN: Solution Tree Press.
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